A modern interior is a space that subtly reflects the inner world and character of a person, his or her lifestyle, values and habits. This environment, in which a person feels happy and successful, feels comfortable and cozy. To create a favorable atmosphere for living, – organized and stylish, with a bright personality and corresponding to any life scenario, when designing a living space, – they adhere to certain principles of interior design. This article will try to answer the fundamental question of What is Interior Design? Basic сoncepts of arranging your living space and turning it to the modern, cozy and aesthetically pleasing place are also the main things to explore in this piece.
Adherence to the basic concepts of design when developing the design of the interior contributes to the creation of functional and harmonious spaces – rooms with a convenient layout, an integral compositional solution, a unified style, an expressive color scheme, practical decoration and furnishings.
Planning solution, functionality and ergonomics
The design of the modern interior design begins with the search for such a planning solution of the room, which will be functional and ergonomic, comfortable and concise. The basic ergonomic standards for designing interiors are formed on the basis of the modulator Le Corbusier, giving an understanding of the average proportions of the human body. Compliance with the norms of ergonomics is in the planning of the interior space, which will be the most convenient for a person’s stay – this refers to the height of the ceilings and areas of functional areas, the width of the aisles and openings, the levels of placement of curtains and equipment places, etc. Ergonomic norms are always taken into account when developing the layout and spatial composition of the interior.
Compositional interior solution
The composition is the basis of the foundations in the interior design, implying the construction of an integral space, all elements of which are interlinked, subordinate to the compositional center and are in harmonious unity. Harmony in interior design is achieved due to the proportionality and balance of all its parts, grouped in a symmetrical or asymmetrical, static or dynamic, metric or rhythmic composition, and interacting with each other in a similarity or contrast manner. The aesthetic qualities of the interior largely depend on the consistency of all components of the composition among themselves in form, size, color, texture and subordination to the unifying idea.
An important condition for creating an integral and harmonious interior is the correspondence of all the elements of the design of the premises to a single style chosen for the ideological concept of space. The totality of the features of the style present in shaping, color, materials, surface finish, etc., allows you to order the interior and give it a style unity. The decision on what style the interior will be designed for sets the direction for working on the design project and outlines the framework for selecting all components of the design.
Color is one of the main means of interior design, through which artistic expressiveness is achieved, as well as emotional and psychological comfort of the interior space for a person. When planning a design and choosing the color range of an interior, first of all, consider the person’s color preferences, choosing such combinations of shades that would subtly reflect his or her inner world, values and character, do not cause irritation and create a cozy environment for living, and moreover, give the interior individuality, correspond to the style and harmonize among themselves. The color scheme of the interior can be subordinate to the principles of nuanced or contrast harmony, include pastel or saturated, warm or cold colors and, depending on the tasks that need to be solved with the help of design, to give the space lightness or drama, openness or camera, noble severity or eccentricity.
Along with the compositional solution and stylistics, color gamma and other components of interior design, lighting is one of the key factors affecting the functionality and harmony of the perception of the interior space. In the modern interior, lighting performs not only utilitarian functions, but also serves decorative purposes: creates visual effects and changes the perception of the shape of objects, outlines the functional and accent areas of the interior, and simulates space, highlighting its merits and concealing flaws. With a competent arrangement and grouping of lighting equipment in combination with a thoughtful selection of the number, type and power of light sources, the same room can be modified and transformed into an environment comfortable for rest or work, for entertaining guests or for privacy. The combination of soft background light with local, directional and accent lighting, as well as the use of dimmers to control light intensity – these techniques allow you to create the most comfortable atmosphere, corresponding to a specific life scenario.
The design of lighting devices plays a significant role in the implementation of the stylistic concept of the interior, supporting the spatial, form-building and color solutions used in the design of the project. The size, configuration, material and color of the lampshades are chosen so that the lighting elements are in harmony with the entire interior environment, without violating its integrity, and the color tone of the light source does not distort the color range of finishing materials, furniture, textiles and other interior components.
Thoughtful selection of finishing materials is an important aspect of the implementation of the conceptual solutions adopted in the design of the interior design project. Considering various building materials for interior decoration, take into account the functional purpose, operation features and the chosen color scheme of the room. Finishing coatings for all surfaces are chosen in such a way that the physical and mechanical properties of the materials correspond to the expected conditions of interior use, and the texture and coloring of the furnishings were in harmony with furniture, equipment, decor, etc. In the design of modern interiors, environmentally friendly and wear-resistant finishing materials are preferable: natural stone, ceramic tiles, wood veneer, water-based paint and mineral plasters – visually effective finishing of natural tones, forming a neutral background for other interior components: furniture and equipment, textile and decorative attributes.
Equipment and furniture
One of the foundations of creating an aesthetic interior is a careful selection of furniture: functional, ergonomic and in respect to chosen style. To ensure that the interior fully meets its functions as a comfortable room for living, furniture must correspond to the purpose of the rooms in their design, size, convenience. The proportions and placement of furniture in the interior should correspond with the volume of space, without violating its compositional integrity, and the execution in the material, texture, texture and color scale – with a stylistic idea of design. Equally with furniture, no less important role in the design of the room is played by equipment: plumbing, lighting, heating radiators, household appliances, etc. These interior components are chosen not only based on technical parameters, but also taking into account the style, configuration, color – so that they are in harmony with the entire interior environment.
Textiles and decorative accessories
An important condition for the formation of a cozy atmosphere in a modern interior is the use of textile and decorative details in the designing of living space. Textiles for sewing curtains and upholstery are chosen in such a way that the texture and style of fabric products organically combined with the style of the interior. And the shade should support the color solution of the design of the room. In addition to textiles, the creation of the effect of living space with a bright authenticity is promoted by decor: paintings, figurines, vases, etc. – these elements often become interior accents due to the original shape, color palette, pattern or texture of the surface. As all components of the design, including decoration, furniture, textiles and decor, harmonize among themselves, allows you to evaluate the visualization that is created within the design of the project.
Visualization of interior space
The result of the design of the project is visualization, which allows you to analyze how much all the accepted visual and aesthetic solutions correspond to the original concept of the interior. In addition, visualization serves as the basis for the development of working drawings necessary for the implementation of conceived renovation and finishing as result of designing, as well as the choice of finishing materials, furniture and other interior components.
In the development of visualizations, it is often resorted to the intentional creation of optical illusions aimed at hiding the shortcomings and highlighting the advantages of the interior space. Using the properties of color and light, designers can visually adjust the proportions of the room: make it higher or lower, narrow or wide. For example, a light or glossy surface will create the effect of removing the plane of the wall or ceiling from the observer, and the dark or textured one – the effect of approximation. The horizontal direction of the textural pattern of wall decoration will visually expand the room, and the vertical one will narrow. Modeling of the interior by computer methods in the course of development of the design of the project allows us to consider several variants of the design of the room, to evaluate the correctness of the idea, to make the final decision and start the project.
Using the basic principles of interior design both at the design stage, and at the implementation stage of the project, allows to organize an aesthetic and comfortable living environment – a space in which a person will feel comfortable both physically and psychologically. Space, the design of which will eloquently reflect his personality, life principles and aspirations, giving strength to new achievements.